English words are used to denote variables, programming structures and commands, and Structured Programming is supported by most 3GLs. A typical 2GL instruction looks like this: ADD 12,8 An assembler converts the assembler language statements into machine language. Fortran IV and optimising Fortran compilers were developed. Programming productivity is increased. Commonly known 3GLs are FORTRAN, BASIC, Pascal and the C-family (C, C+, C++, C#, Objective-C) of languages. If instructions need to be added into memory at some location, then all the instructions after the insertion point need to be moved down, which is very difficult. The computers of the third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) in place of transistors. These languages directly talk to hardware.2.Second Generation Programming LanguageSecond generation of languages is also low level language which is known as assembly language. 3. 3rd generation languages. 3rd Generation: Structured Programming: Structured programming specifies a logical structure on the program being written to make it more efficient and easier to understand and modify. » Air conditioning was required. Third-generation computers having remote processing, time-sharing, and multiprogramming operating systems. The languages of the third and later generation are considered as a high-level language because they enable the programmer to concentrate only on the logic of the programs without considering the internal architecture of the computer system. Discuss fourth generation languages with its advantages and disadvantages. Simplified the programming process. Advantages of Third Generatin of Computer: » Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds. The third generation programming languages were designed to overcome the various limitations of the first and second generation programming languages. Disadvantages of First Generatin of Computer: Example of Third Generation of Computer: 1. A third-generation language, such as C and Java, require a consider… C language is the building block for many other currently known languages, It has a variety of data types and powerful operators, C program is basically the collection of functions that are supported by the C library, So you can add your own functions to C library, so, the programming task becomes simple, C language is the structured programming language. IBM PC 2. Compare this to a first-generation programming language (machine code), or a second-generation programming language (assembly language). PDP(Personal Data Processor) TDC-316 IBM-370/168, Input Devices: Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. One line of 4GL code is equivalent to several lines of 3GL code. Third Generation of mordern computer (1965 - 1974) The period of third generation was 1965-1974.In this generation silicon transistors replaced germanium transistors. Insight is given below regarding both the pros and cons of learning multiple languages … It especially gets problematic when you try to learn multiple languages at the same time. Every language has limitations. A single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. This includes setting up build systems, creating header files, adding and managing new C/C++ 3rd party libraries, and other things of that ilk. Integrated circuits were developed by interconnecting transistors, resistors and capacitors grown on a single chip of silicon. Disadvantages: (i) Machine language is more difficult to learn than higher generational programming languages. Standardisation of COBOL (COBOL 68) was another major development during this period. The term generation summarizes major evolutionary advances in programming languages. » All types of High level languages can be used in this type of computers » Cheapest among all generations Disadvantages of Fourth Generatin of Computer: » The latest technology is required for manufacturing of Microprocessors. Used fan for head discharge to prevent damage. Tutsmaster.org provides tutorials related to tech and programmings. 3. There are five generation of Programming languages.They are: First Generation Languages : These are low-level languages like machine language. High level languages are similar to the human language. » Smaller in size as compared to previous generations. Apple II 3. Use nonprocedural languages that encourage users and programmers to specify the results they want, while the computers determines the sequence of instructions that will accomplish those results. Smaller in size as compared to previous generations. A fourth-generation programming language (4GL) is any computer programming language that belongs to a class of languages envisioned as an advancement upon third-generation programming languages (3GL). It is easy to develop, learn and understand the program. OOP languages are languages that revolve around the concept of an object in their code. CRAY 5. In San Francisco, over 50% of the families who are looking for a nanny want to hire someone who is fluent in a language other than their own – and that doesn’t always mean it is Spanish. (. STAR 1000 The heat generation was negligible. 4. uses high level programming. Assembly language is made up of symbolic instructions and addresses. Also known as a 3rd generation language, or a high-level programming language. First-generation languages were basic data instructions for processors to execute. Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations of computers. The period of third generation was 1965-1974.In this generation silicon transistors replaced germanium transistors. Programming Languages:5th Generation Language. Unlike the first generation languages, programs can be written symbolically, using English words (also known as mnemonics), in a way that a human can understand and are subsequently converted into machine language by an assembler. The third generation was from 1965-1971. Many programming languages like COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, FORTRAN-2 to 5, and ALGOL-68 were also used in the 3rd generation computers. Therefore, Third-generation computers had become very programmer-friendly and more-machine-independent. » Could be used for high-level languages. You have more career prospects available to you because of multilingualism. DEC 10 6. 5. 6. Procedural languages are examples of 3rd generation languages. ICs were small in size, less power consuming and less expensive than the previous switching technology. Advances in storage technologies resulted in creating large capacity magnetic ,disks and tapes and large magnetic core based random access memory. High storage capacity than the previous generation’s computer. » Commercial production increased. Computer Physics Communications 38 (1985) 22131 North-Holland, Amsterdam PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES FOR FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS Isabel GOUVEIA LIMA Computing Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NEI 7R U. UK 221 and Philip C. TRELEAVEN University of Reading, Whitenights Reading RGO 2AX, UK Fifth Generation languages and … The highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips. Advantages Fourth Generation of Computer. High level language is abbreviated as HLL. » Maintenance cost was low because hardware failure is reare. A third generation (programming) language (3GL) is a grouping of programming languages that introduced significant enhancements to second generation languages, primarily intended to make the programming language more programmer-friendly. Programs written in a 3GL can be compiled to run on many different devices. Maintenance cost was low because hardware failure is rare. 7. lower maintenance cost 4. Example of Third Generation of Computer: (ii) It is very difficult to modify the machine language programs. Honeywell-6000 series An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor. » Tactile sensitivity is decreased Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations of computers. This is about 4 major types of programming languages and their primary advantages and disadvantages. programming language that the computer can understand directly without translation They do not interact directly with the hardware. The lack of straightforward, all-powerful code generation was my primary gripe with C++. Integrated circuits were developed by interconnecting transistors, resistors and capacitors grown on a single chip of silicon. Smaller in size and much reliable than other generations of computer. VAX 9000 4. Difference between third-generation language (3GL) and fourth-generation language (4GL) More reliable. » Used less energy as compared to previous generations. » Totally general purpose Advantages of Third Generation Computer. IBM 360/370 The advantages of the third generation computers are: 1. faster. 2. Integrated Circuit (IC) chips were used in computers. » Good storage 1. 1st----5th Generations and it's Advantages and Disadvantages Adavantages include: Third generation languages make … Fourth-generation language (4GL) is friendly for users. » Less expensive and Better accuracy ( First Generation, Second Generation) Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds. Use natural languages that impose no rigid grammatical rules English words are used to denote variables, programming structures and commands, and Structured Programming is supported by most … High level language provides higher level of abstraction from machine language. 2GL or second-generation language is assembler (sometimes called "assembly") language. On software front, high level languages were improved. It is now many decades since the first computer language was created. In first generation language, the errors that occur are very difficult to correct and this is one of the major disadvantages of this generation of programming language. Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds. A third-generation programming language (3GL), is a programming language that is machine-independent. Unlike low level languages, high level languages are programmers friendly, easy to code, debug and maintain. 2. smaller. This language is easy to develop programs. » Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations of computers. Due to the use of integrated circuits, the computer was smaller in size, efficient, and more reliable. Used less energy. 2… The main advantage of high-level programming languages is that it is easy to read, write and maintain. » Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips. » More reliable as compared to previous generations. However, there are advantages to learning multiple languages, and there are a few disadvantages associated with it as well. Disadvantages of Third Generation Languages The produced code might not able to make the best use of processor-specific features like 1s and 2nd generation languages… A second generation (programming) language (2GL) is a grouping of programming languages associated with assembly languages. An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. Integrated Circuit (IC) chips were used in computers. ADVANTAGES OF FIRST GENERATION LANGUAGE. Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Generations Category Table: g50013: GENERATION COMPUTERS by … They were developed for totally general purpose use (general-purpose computers). When you can speak multiple languages, then your value as an employee increases exponentially with each new language that you learn. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. Advantages of third generation programming language 1. 3GL or third-generation language is a "high-level" programming language, such as PL/I, C, or Java. Smaller in size as compared to previous generations. » Used mouse and keyboard for input. Fourth-Generation Languages: (4GL's) Advantages: 1. The first language type is Object-Oriented Programming. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Fourth Generation of Computer. The third-generation languages were more powerful than the previous generation languages. System development is faster. We are also setting up a community for the users and students. The idea is that when children are exposed to multiple languages from birth, then they are simply learning two first l… Second-generation languages use an assembler to convert language statements into machine language. Required a long time to convert into machine code. 5. cheaper. 1. Examples of common and historical third-generation programming languages are ALGOL, BASIC, C, COBOL, Fortran, Java, and Pascal. 2. Program maintenance is … 3. uses less energy. All imperative languages lay out their instructions in sequence. Disadvantages: Programs run slower because it is heavy in size and design. A third-generation programming language (3GL) is a high-level computer programming language that tends to be more machine-independent and programmer-friendly than the machine code of the first-generation and assembly languages of the second-generation, while having a less specific focus to the fourth and fifth generations. Second Generation Languages : These are low-level assembly languages used in kernels and hardware drives. Third-generation languages use high-level language statements that are converted by a compiler into specific programming language statements. References will be posted after the section in which they have been used. Gain more power! 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